According to the Vision Council of America, roughly 75% of adults in the United States require some form of vision correction. Yet only 10% of Americans wear contact lenses. Studies estimate that one in four initial contact-users finds the lenses uncomfortable and stops wearing them. Thus, increasing the comfort level of contact lenses and expanding the market is a continual objective in the vision industry.
In order to understand the factors that contribute to lens comfort, it is important to study the solid and fluid mechanics of a lens’ interaction with an eye. In an article publishing this week in the SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, authors David Ross, Kara Maki, and Emily Holz design an equilibrium model to demonstrate the elastic stresses and suction pressure distribution between a soft hydrogel contact lens and an eye. Read the rest of this entry »
Image segmentation, the process of separating a digital image into multiple sections for individual examination, is frequently used in medical image analysis. For example, segmentation in ultrasound footage helps identify boundaries and regions of interest (ROI) that facilitate image interpretation. Efficient segmentation of ultrasound videos, however, is often complicated by low contrast, shadow effects, and complex “noise” statistics (unexplained variations). In addition, real-time applications such as navigation during operational surgery require efficient algorithms.
In an article published this month in the SIAM Journal on Imaging Sciences, authors Jiulong Liu, Xiaoqun Zhang, Bin Dong, Zuowei Shen, and Lixu Gu propose a video segmentation model to recognize ROI in ultrasounds. Read the rest of this entry »
Physical and biological models often have hundreds of inputs, many of which may have a negligible effect on a model’s response. Establishing parameters that can be fixed at nominal values without significantly affecting model outputs is often difficult; sometimes these parameters cannot be simply discerned by the outputs. Thus, verifying that a parameter is noninfluential is both computationally challenging and quite expensive. Read the rest of this entry »
Whether taking photos recreationally or professionally, photographers understandably want their snapshots to appear sharp and clear. Image clarity is dependent on exposure time, or the amount of time that a camera’s sensor is exposed to light while a photograph is being taken. During this period, the shutter opens and the camera counts the number of photons emitted by the subject. Read the rest of this entry »
Jupiter, which has a mass more than twice that of all the planets combined, continues to fascinate researchers. The planet is characterized most often by its powerful jet streams and Great Red Spot (GRS), the biggest and longest-lasting known atmospheric vortex. Although still images provide some insight into the features of Jupiter’s atmosphere, the atmosphere itself is unsteady and turbulent, and its features are time-dependent.
In a paper published this month in SIAM Review, authors Alireza Hadjighasem and George Haller use video footage to analyze Jupiter’s transport barriers and examine prior conclusions about Jupiter’s atmosphere. Read the rest of this entry »
Adaptive control techniques can help manage pests more effectively
As population growth, greater food consumption, competition for land use, and climate change pose challenges to world food production, managing loss of crop due to pests and weeds becomes increasingly important. While chemical pesticides offer effective means for control, potential loss of crop yield is still significant, as is cost. Global potential loss from pests has been estimated to be between 50% and 80% of yield based on crop type.
In a paper published last week in the SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, authors Chris Guiver et al propose adaptive control techniques to model pest dynamics and management as a control system. Read the rest of this entry »
Mathematics is often implemented in healthcare and medical research. From health management to the bio-pharmaceutical fields, math modeling can be used to predict the spread of diseases, how to prevent epidemics and so much more. An article “SIR-Network Model And its Application to Dengue Fever,” authored by Lucas M. Stolerman, Daniel Coombs and Stefanella Boatto, published recently in the SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics introduces a new mathematical model which offers a simplified approach to studying the spread of the infectious virus, Dengue fever, in urban areas, specifically breaking down the epidemic dynamics across a city and its varying neighborhoods and populations. Read the rest of this entry »
Philadelphia, PA – In our competitive global society, successful and economical design of automotive and industrial structures is crucial. Optimizing the geometry of individual pieces of complex machines improves performance and efficiency of the entire device.
To achieve this, the automotive and aeronautic industries often rely on shape optimization, an approach that uses modeling to create a framework for making devices as smooth and efficient as possible. “A smoother rotation of the rotor can increase the energy efficiency of the motor, and at the same time reduce unwanted side effects like noise and vibrations,” says mathematician Ulrich Langer. Read the rest of this entry »
Philadelphia, PA – “The impact of human mobility on disease dynamics has been the focus of mathematical epidemiology for many years, especially since the 2002-03 SARS outbreak, which showed that an infectious agent can spread across the globe very rapidly via transportation networks,” says mathematician Gergely Röst. Röst is co-author of a paper published today in the SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems that presents a mathematical model to study the effects of individual movement on infectious disease spread.
“More recently, the risk of polio in Europe has been elevated by human migration, and many countries were concerned about the possibility of Ebola getting out of West-Africa,” continues Röst, who co-authored the paper with Diana Knipl and Paweł Pilarczyk. “There are several mathematical tools that can help in assessing how mobility facilitates disease spread, including multipatch compartmental models which are suitable to describe local disease dynamics as well as travel patterns between distinct locations, such as major cities.” Read the rest of this entry »