## Research News

## Predict the Future … With Math!

As Math Awareness Month (MAM) winds down, we wanted to leave you with another post! The goal of MAM is to increase public understanding and appreciation for mathematics. This year’s theme is “The Future of Prediction”. Many may not realize that mathematics and statistics are widely used to predict a number of things, such as, the outcome of a ball game, the results of elections, U.S industrial production of oil and natural gas prices, and even your health. Joe Kincaid, Senior Business Process Engineer of Blue Cross and Blue Shield, determined that the healthcare industry could forecast the likelihood of coronary heart disease through the use of mathematics, statistics, and technology advancements, which he discusses in his essay “To your Health”. Read the rest of this entry »

## NSF Cultivates the Science and Engineering Industry

**Mathematical Sciences Innovation Incubator (MSII)**

The Division of Mathematics Sciences within NSF helps to build strong synergistic relationships between the mathematical sciences and many other NSF-supported tracks through the Mathematical Sciences Innovation Incubator (MSII). The MSII aims to encourage new research collaborations in the mathematical science communities and between other scientists and engineers working in NSF-supported research areas.

## SIAM News: January/February Issue Now Available

The latest issue of SIAM News is now available online! Mathematics not only enhances scientific progress, but also hides within simple gestures we instinctively repeat every day. Such is the case when we turn on the lights. What does it take to ensure that every time we enter a dark room and flip the light switch, electricity is available and waiting for us to use? Read more about optimization and how one can generate electricity in a manner that is both satisfactory for consumers and efficient from the network point of view in the most recent issue of SIAM News.

## New method helps map species genetic heritage

*From the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign News Bureau: *

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. — Where did the songbird get its song? What branch of the bird family tree is closer to the flamingo – the heron or the sparrow?

These questions seem simple, but are actually difficult for geneticists to answer. A new, sophisticated statistical technique developed by researchers at the University of Illinois and the University of Texas at Austin can help researchers construct more accurate species trees detailing the lineage of genes and the relationships between species.

The method, called statistical binning, was used in the Avian Phylogenetics Project, the subject of a Dec. 12 special issue of the journal Science.

“A species tree is a way of describing how a species evolved from a common ancestor,” said study leader Tandy Warnow, Founder Professor of Bioengineering and Computer Science at the University of Illinois. “Researchers use a species tree to do all sorts of things, like figure out when different traits came into being, and what triggered that trait evolution, and how those things may or may not have been triggered by environmental changes.” Read the rest of this entry »

## UC- Berkeley graduate student Jasmine Nirody on mechanistic models of bacterial movement

How do bacteria move? Can we turn to math and physics for answers? Jasmine Nirody, a graduate student at UC-Berkeley, has been fascinated with how organisms move since she was a little kid. Now she is using that passion to study how tiny organisms like bacteria move despite the large frictional and viscous forces acting against them in their environments. Using principles from applied mathematics and theoretical biophysics, Nirody is studying how flagellar forces help bacteria move via mechanistic models of the bacterial flagellar motor.

Watch the video to learn more!

## Arthur Lander on modeling normal versus rampant cell growth

How do the basics of what goes on in our tissues during normal development give us a better understanding of what happens when things go awry in the malignant disease state? In this clip, Arthur Lander of the University of California, Irvine, speaks about how biological systems use control and regulation to achieve or maintain desired outcomes in growth and development. Controlled growth is not only essential for biological development, but also plays an important role in preventing the kinds of out-of-control growth we see in certain cancers. Lander’s group builds mathematical models that mimic real tissues in order to understand normal growth control. Using such models, his lab is determining how morphogenesis is achieved by turning growth on and off in certain desired locations via regulated feedback between growing cells and those that produce tissues.

Watch the video to learn more!

## DARPA seeks approach to predict chikungunya virus spread

*From Science Magazine: *

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is turning to scientists to help forecast the next outbreak of the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus, announcing its first health-related challenge. DARPA is offering $150,000 for the best new approach. The virus causes high fever, joint and muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue, and rash While the infection is very rarely fatal, the painful swelling of joints is usually prolonged and can be disabling. DARPA has a special interest in protecting U.S. soldiers in different parts of the world from being infected.

Read the full story on sciencemag.org.

## A chat with Mathematics and Climate authors

View a Google Hangout interview with Hans Kaper and Hans Engler, authors of the book, *Mathematics and Climate*.

The book was published by SIAM in October 2013, and has been honored by the Atmospheric Science Librarians International (ASLI) as the best book of 2013 in the fields of meteorology, climatology, and atmospheric sciences.

How can mathematical and statistical tools help us understand the dynamics of the Earth’s climate system? What are conceptual climate models and how do they aid in predicting future climate? What should mathematicians and scientists do to reinforce the urgency with which we should be tackling one of the biggest problems of our time? Read the rest of this entry »

## The world, through a mathematical lens

*Math modeling handbook now available*

Philadelphia, PA—Math comes in handy for answering questions about a variety of topics, from calculating the cost-effectiveness of fuel sources and determining the best regions to build high-speed rail to predicting the spread of disease and assessing roller coasters on the basis of their “thrill” factor. How does math do *all *that?

That is the topic of a free handbook published by the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM) this month: “Math Modeling: Getting Started and Getting Solutions.”

Finding a solution to any of the aforementioned problems—or the multitude of other unanswered questions in the real world—will likely involve the creation, application, and refinement of a mathematical model. A math model is a mathematical representation of a real-world situation intended to gain a qualitative or quantitative understanding in order to predict future behavior. Such predictions allow us to come up with novel findings, enable scientific advances, and make informed decisions.

The handbook provides instructions and a process for building mathematical models using a variety of examples to answer wide-ranging questions. Read the rest of this entry »

## How does innovation take hold in a community? Math modeling can provide clues

Philadelphia, PA—Mathematical models can be used to study the spread of technological innovations among individuals connected to each other by a network of peer-to-peer influences, such as in a physical community or neighborhood. One such model was introduced in a paper published yesterday in the *SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems.*

Authors N. J. McCullen, A. M. Rucklidge, C. S. E. Bale, T. J. Foxon, and W. F. Gale focus on one* *main application: The adoption of energy-efficient technologies in a population, and consequently, a means to control energy consumption. By using a network model for adoption of energy technologies and behaviors, the model helps evaluate the potential for using networks in a physical community to shape energy policy. Read the rest of this entry »